[C2, Week1]The Bits and Bytes of Computer Networking(Google IT Support) 網路概論

The TCP/IP Five-Layer Network Model

  1. Physical layer / 10 Base T, 802.11 / Bits / N/A
  2. Data Link layer(aka Network access layer)/ Ethernet, Wi-Fi / Frames / MAC address
  3. Network layer(aka Internet later)/ IP / Datagram / IP address
  4. Transport layer / TCP, UDP / Segment / Port #’s
  5. Application layer / HTTP, SMTP / Messages / N/A
  1. 應用程式階段:妳打開瀏覽器,在瀏覽器上面輸入網址列,按下 [Enter]。此時網址列與相關資料會被瀏覽器包成一個資料, 並向下傳給 TCP/IP 的應用層;
  2. 應用層:由應用層提供的 HTTP 通訊協定,將來自瀏覽器的資料包起來,並給予一個應用層表頭,再向傳送層丟去;
  3. 傳送層:由於 HTTP 為可靠連線,因此將該資料丟入 TCP 封包內,並給予一個 TCP 封包的表頭,向網路層丟去;
  4. 網路層:將 TCP 包裹包進 IP 封包內,再給予一個 IP 表頭 (主要就是來源與目標的 IP 囉),向鏈結層丟去;
  5. 鏈結層:如果使用乙太網路時,此時 IP 會依據 CSMA/CD 的標準,包裹到 MAC 訊框中,並給予 MAC 表頭,再轉成位元串後, 利用傳輸媒體傳送到遠端主機上。

The Basics of Networking Devices

The Physical Layer

The Data Link Layer

Ethernet and MAC Addresses

Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast

Dissecting an Ethernet Frame





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